Lean is a drug “cocktail” in liquid form that consists of prescription cough and cold medication, hard candy (often Jolly Ranchers), and a soft drink such as Sprite. It’s also referred to as “purple lean,” “purple drank,” and “sizzurp.”
The prescription cough medications in lean contain codeine, an opiate used as a cough suppressant that can also produce pain relieving and sedating effects. The antihistamine promethazine is another possible ingredient, and can also contribute to sedation and impairment of motor skills.
When codeine is consumed in excessive amounts, it can lead to extremely harmful effects. Because the drug is administered in the form of a drinkable liquid, users can quickly lose track of how much of the intoxicating ingredients they have consumed. This mishap is mostly due to the cough syrup’s flavor being masked by soda and candy, and this is where much of the danger lies.
Side effects will gradually become more severe as a person drinks increasing amounts of lean. First-time users may also encounter unpleasant side effects, including dizziness, blurred vision, nausea, and impaired memory. Repeated, long-term use can also result in extensive health problems.
People who drink lean on a frequent basis report developing tooth decay and other dental problems, as well as unwanted weight gain, constipation, and urinary tract infections. People who engage in extended lean abuse or use the drug in a sufficiently large amount may also encounter life-threatening complications such as an overdose. This danger is much more likely to occur when the drug is used in combination with other depressants, such as alcohol.
Codeine is an opiate and is also the psychoactive ingredient in lean that is behind both its desirable dangerous effects. Opiates and opioids are in a class of drugs associated with an extremely high rate of abuse, dependence, and addiction. The remarkably addictive nature of opioid drugs is due, in part, to the pleasurable and rewarding effects that they produce, including euphoria and relief from anxiety and stress.
Because codeine is legal when prescribed by a doctor and used legitimately by many people to manage cough or pain, it’s somewhat difficult to track rates of abuse and addiction. Long-term opioid abuse can lead to the development of drug tolerance and dependence. As tolerance grows, people often find themselves needing to use more and more of the drug to feel the coveted effects.
This increase in drug-taking behavior can be a catalyst for the development of physiological dependence. Opioid-dependent people will experience unpleasant withdrawal symptoms if they try to discontinue drug use. In the early stages of withdrawal, the person may experience the following:
- Sleep disturbances
- Muscle aches and pains
- Teary eyes
- Runny nose
- Excessive sweating
If a person has used lean for an extended period or in very high doses, they may encounter more intense withdrawal effects, including nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and diarrhea. To avoid or postpone withdrawal symptoms, people dependent upon lean will frequently relapse, or return to consuming the drink or other opioid drugs. This behavior only serves to perpetuate an endless cycle of abuse that can ravage their mental and physical health.
Lean in the Media
The drug combination known as lean or purple drank has been promoted as a desirable high by several high-profile celebrities, most notably musicians such as Lil Wayne and Justin Bieber.
Although lean’s “cool” media presence may encourage some young people to use, the reality is, even those who have been credited with making the mixture famous have suffered from health complications. For example, Lil Wayne reportedly began experiencing seizures several years ago after a long history of engaging in lean abuse.
There have also been a few celebrity deaths associated with lean. In November 2000, DJ Screw, who popularized the consumption of the drink, died of an overdose related to codeine, promethazine, and alcohol. Then in October 2007, Big Moe, a protégé of DJ Screw who frequently rapped about use of the drug died at age 33, after suffering a heart attack. It was believed that lean might have played a key role in his death.
Treatment for Codeine Addiction
Because the withdrawal symptoms that result from codeine addiction can be highly unpleasant, many patients opt for medical detox and then immediately transfer to an intensive addiction treatment program. Harmony Recovery Center offers comprehensive programs in partial-hospitalization and outpatient formats. These programs include evidence-based approaches to substance abuse treatment, such as psychotherapy, individual and family counseling, and peer support.
During treatment, compassionate, highly-skilled addiction professionals care for patients and provide them with the resources and support they need to navigate sober life after treatment has been completed.
We are dedicated to helping our clients reclaim their lives, free from addiction to drugs and alcohol. Please call us as soon as possible to find out how!